On 7 June 2021, the CAT ruled on the preliminary issue of whether English or Italian law governs claims made by claimant companies incorporated in Italy (the Italian Claimants). The broader claim relates to an Article 101 TFEU infringement decision concerning default multilateral interchange fees (MIFs) set by Mastercard and Visa. On the preliminary issue, the CAT ruled that that claims made by the Italian Claimants relating to Italian domestic MIFs are governed by Italian law, pursuant to Article 6(3)(a) of Rome II. However, the claims made by the Italian Claimants in respect of EEA MIFs and Inter-regional MIFs fall within Article 6(3)(b) of Rome II, meaning that those claims can be governed by English law.