On 19 July 2019, the CAT ruled that Network Rail illegally enforced its ‘RISQS-only’ rule on other users of its infrastructure. The policy requires infrastructure users to obtain supplier assurance through the Railway Industry Supplier Qualification Scheme (RISQS). Achilles challenged the policy on the basis that competing schemes such as its own were unfairly excluded. The CAT held that the policy was an abuse of Network Rail’s dominance and violated the prohibition on anticompetitive agreements.