On January 2, 2019, the FCA authorized the acquisition by the Vivendi Group of the Editis Group, which owns 13 literary publishing houses operating the brands Fleuve, Julliard, Le Cherche Midi, Plon, Robert Laffont, Bordas and Nathan, among others. The Vivendi group is active, in particular, on the music, communication and advertising and audiovisual production markets, including audiovisual adaptations of literary works via the Canal Plus Group. The transaction will not lead to any horizontal overlap between the two groups. According to the FCA, the transaction was also not likely to undermine competition through vertical effects, insofar as the Canal Plus Group rarely acquires audiovisual adaptation rights from publishing houses for literary works in French. The decision marks Editis’ return to the Vivendi Group approximately 15 years after Lagardère’s acquisition of Vivendi Universal Publishing. At the time, Editis had gathered the assets transferred as part of the filing process before the European Commission.
 FCA, decision n°19-DCC-01 of January 2, 2019, concerning the acquisition of sole control of publishing houses group Editis by Vivendi group.
 European Commission, January 7, 2004, COMP/M.2978, Lagardère / Natexis / VUP.