On January 29, the Court of Appeal held that the English courts lacked jurisdiction to find a standalone infringement in respect of an alleged cartel concerning air cargo services between the EU and third countries before Regulation 1/2003 came into force. Prior to Regulation 1/2003, only the Commission and national competition authorities (NCAs) could find an infringement of Article 101 TFEU in respect of such services. Absent a prior finding by the Commission or an NCA, therefore, national courts had no jurisdiction to award damages for the period before Regulation 1/2003 entered into force in relation to an alleged infringement involving such services.